Рефераты POP ART

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POP ART
Селеменева А. ММА-91

US Style and design (20th century) –
Pop Art, Commercial Photography

The twentieth century is the first century of self-conscious, total
design at every level of our living and environment. Care and vision in
application of design have come to be demanded in every aspect of modern
life – from our kitchens and bathrooms, to our factories and workshops,
from our clothes and domestic objects, to the packaging of pocket
calculators or the structuring of plastic dining chairs.
Although the word has been used since at least the fifteenth century,
when Italian writers spoke of 'disegno' in describing the quality of line
possessed by an image or artifact, in all essentials 'design' is an
industrial or post-industrial concept. With the introduction of mass-
production, the people who invented ideas for objects became separated from
the people who made them who, again, were separated from the people who
sold them. The industrial revolution also created the concept of the
market. Personal need, or the whims of a patron, were replaced by a more
abstract demand: the tastes of a large, amorphous body of consumers.
The modern designer came into being as an intermediary between industry
and the consumer. His role was to adapt the products of industry to the
mass market, to make them more useful and durable, perhaps, but to make
them more appealing and commercially successful, certainly. Commercial
success is the touchstone of achievement in design, although designers in
different cultures have often taken different views as to how the
achievement is measured or the success validated.
So, design in business and advertisement means much. The story of style
in the applied arts since the mid-to late fifties has been dominated by
various new forces, including social and economic factors and certain
aspects of technical and scientific progress. Now we have computer design,
web design, advertisement design ( for example consumer-product branding
design) and the whole fashion of different types of ad, colors and so on.
The late fifties saw the birth of advertising as we know it today, a
high-powered business dedicated to the development effective marketing
techniques; it involved new design concepts and a whole new professional
jargon of product packaging, market research, corporate images and house
style.
The POP Art movement embraced the work of a new generation of artists
of late fifties and early sixties of both sides of the Atlantic. In
Britain, in addition to the Independent Group, there were Peter Blake,
Allen Jones. In USA Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman, Claes Oldenburg and other
formalized the language of product packaging, from beer cans to Campbell's
Soup tins of strip cartoons, fast food, advertising hoardings and pin-ups.
Pop Art at once reflected and glorified mass-market culture and
injected a new vigour into the applied arts. Pop and the art styles which
were its natural successors, notably American Hard-Edge Abstraction and the
Hyper- or Photo-realist school of around 1970, suggested a new palette o
colours and gave a fresh, ironical edge to the imagery of popular culture.
The Pop ethic posi lively encouraged designers to exploit vulgarity
brashness and bright colour, and to use synthetic or disposable materials
in contexts in which they would formerly have been unacceptable. Pop has
had a lasting effect on design in a wide variety of media, including
interiors, graphics and fashion.
Pop has spawned furniture in bright, primary-coloured plastics and in
boldly printed fold-away cardboard; it has inspired, notably in Britain and
Italy, witty sculptural furniture in brash, synthetic materials reminiscent
of the sculptures of Claes Oldenburg. The fashion and furniture shop Mr
Freedom, opened in London in 1969 by Tommy Roberts, was a veritable shrine
to the Pop cult, with lively furniture designs by Jon Weallans
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