Рефераты Hieronymus Bosch

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Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch



Between Magic and Reality



Biography of Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymus Bosch was born in 1450 in Hertogenbosch, a provincial but
prosperous town located in the modern Netherlands close to the Belgian
border. He is one of the most famous of the Netherlandish artists, known
for his enigmatic panels illustrating complex religious subjects with
fantastic, often demonic imagery.
Too little information is safes about his life. His father and
grandfather were both painters in the same town before him and apparently
Bosch lived all his life there. From his childhood he lived in artist’s
family. He married a reach and highborn woman, Aleid van Mervey. Hieronymus
Bosch joined the lay of the Confraternity of Notre Dame. It was founded in
1318. The symbol of the organization was white swan. This sodality
consists of friars and secular people. This organization kept away from the
Catholic Church, it confessed ideas of humanism and mysticism. The sodality
organized a number of printing houses and schools. Bosch was responsible
for designing a stained-glass window, among several other works, for the
town church.
In 1480 he was for the first time mentioned as a painter. The last
time he was mentioned in the books of sodality – the 9 of August 1516. It
was the day of his funeral.

Mystery of Bosch’s paintings

Bosch is one of the most mysterious painters in the world. The
attitude toward him has changed through years. His contemporaries thought
that he was a strange man, who paint fantastic pictures, frightful and
funny at the same time. His paintings became very popular in Spain and in
Portugal. In Portugal there are the most good collections of paintings of
Bosch. There are thousands of books about Bosch and his works. References
to astrology, folklore, witchcraft, and alchemy, in addition to the theme
of the Antichrist and episodes from the lives of exemplary saints, are all
woven together by Bosch into a labyrinth of late medieval Christian
iconography. Some scientists think that Bosch was a forerunner of the
surrealism. Some think he was a real catholic, some that he was an atheist.
From his paintings we can understand that he was a very well educated
person, he knew Bible and lots of other books of past and present, he also
new lots of folk legends. He was good at science, medicine, astrology and
even alchemy. We can say that he also knew music because we can find lots
of musical instruments on his pictures. Scholars differ in their
interpretation of Bosch's art, but most agree that his pictures show a
preoccupation with the human propensity for sin in defiance of God, as well
as with God's eternal damnation of lost souls in hell as a fateful
consequence of human folly. The main theme of his paintings was the
opposition of Good and Evil, of God and Devil, of life and death.
Among the dozens of Boschian paintings, the autograph works generally
accepted as his include the following: The Marriage at Cana (Museum Boymans-
van Beuningen, Rotterdam), The Seven Deadly Sins (Prado, Madrid),
Crucifixion (Museus Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels), The Hay Wain (Prado),
The Death of the Miser (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), The
Temptation of Saint Anthony (Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon), The
Garden of Earthly Delights (Prado), The Adoration of the Magi (Prado), and
Christ Carrying the Cross (Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent).

Periods of paintings

Dated works by Bosch do not exist so we cant only imagine the
chronology of his paintings. Researchers divide his work into 3 periods –
the earliest, mature and oldest period.
The paintings which belong to the earliest period (1470 – 1500) mostly
devoted to religious themes. Most of them are illustrations to the Bible
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