Рефераты American Cinema (Кино и театры Америки)

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American Cinema (Кино и театры Америки)
. Popcorn at the movies
became more and more popular. Many people like to put salt and melted
butter on their popcorn. Some people eat it without salt or butter. Either
way - Americans love their popcorn!



The Oscar.


The Oscars are awarded every year by the American Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Science. These statuettes are awarded to actors, film
directors, screenwriters and so on for outstanding contributions to the
film industry. The Oscars were first awarded in 1927. The first winners
were chosen by five judges. Nowadays all of the members of the Academy
vote. The ceremony is attended by most Hollywood stars, although some
famous stars, such as Woody Allen, refuse to go, even if they win an award.
The oldest winner of an Oscar was 80-year- old Jessica Tandy for her
performance in the film “Driving Miss Daisy” in 1990. The youngest was
Shirley Temple when she was only five years old. The statuette is of
soldier standing on a reel of film. Nobody is really sure why it is called
an Oscar, although some people say that it is because when the first
statuette was made, a secretary said, “It reminds me of Uncle Oscar!”



Hollywood.


When people think about of Hollywood, they probably think of film stars
like Marilyn Monroe, Gary Grant and James Dean. Hollywood is the center of
the international movie industry and American movies are distributed all
over the world. They are made in English but often dubbed into other
languages. In some countries 90 percent of the movies that people see are
US production. Sometimes, a film is not very popular with Americans, but
people in other countries like it. The first films were made in Hollywood
in 1911. Between 1930-1945, the five largest Hollywood’s studios produced
most of the movies and owned most of the movie theatres in the United
States. Making films is expensive. On the average, it costs 36 million
dollars to produce a movie. Some of this goes to pay the salary of well-
known movie stars and large sums can be spent on special effects like
computer-generated imagery (CGI). Marketing the movie to the public may
cost another 17 million dollars or more. To cover these costs film
companies receive money for movie theatre tickets and the sale or rental of
videos. They also sell CDs of the soundtrack and toys, books, or clothes
associated with the movie. Indeed, there was a time when Hollywood was the
most famous place in the USA, if not the world.
The Hollywood story begins at the end of the last century.
1887. A man called Harvey Wilcox bought a large ranch in a district
north-west of Los Angeles in California. His wife called the land
‘Hollywood’.
1902-04. The first cinemas (‘nickelodeons’) opened in the USA.
1911. Two brothers from New Jersey built Hollywood’s first film studio.

1912. Film-makers from the east coast of the USA came to California,
first in small number and then in thousands.
1912. The Hollywood industry was born.
There were several reasons why film makers went to Hollywood. Firstly,
there was a lot of space, secondly, California’s warm sunny weather was
ideal for making films outside. Thirdly, there was a variety of locations
for filming: ocean, mountains, deserts, villages, woodland and rivers.
By 1939 the great dream factory studios made nearly 500 movies a year,
drew American audience of 50 million a week and earned over 700 million
dollars at the box office-all with the help of 30,000 employees who dealt
with everything from processing film to fan mail.
In the 1950s and 60s Hollywood became more international. Famous stars
like Maurice Chevalier from France, Marlene Dietrich from Germany and Sofia
Loren from Italy came to Hollywood. Even today many international stars
like Gerard Depardier and Arnold Schwarzeneger make films in Hollywood
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