Рефераты American Cinema (Кино и театры Америки)

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American Cinema (Кино и театры Америки)
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contrast, about a billion movie tickets are sold at movie houses across the
USA every year.
There are three main varieties of movie theaters in the USA: 1) the
"first-run" movie houses, which show new films; 2) "art theaters", which
specialize in showing foreign films and revivals; 3) "neighborhood
theaters", which run films — sometimes two at a time — after the "first-
run" houses.
New York is a movie theater capital of the country. Many of the city's
famous large movie theaters, once giving Times Square so much of its
glitter, have been torn down or converted (in some cases into smaller
theaters), and a new generation of modem theaters has appeared to the north
and east of the area. Most of them offer continuous performances from
around noon till midnight. Less crowded and less expensive are the so-
called "neighborhood theaters", which show films several weeks or months
after the "first-run" theaters. There are several theaters that specialize
in revivals of famous old films and others that show only modernist, avant-
garde films. Still others, especially those along 42nd Street, between the
Avenue of Americas and Eighth Avenue, run movies about sex and violence.
Foreign films, especially those of British, French, Italian and Swedish
origin, are often seen in New York, and several movie theaters specialize
in the showing of foreign-language films for the various ethnic groups in
the city.



The earliest history of film.


The illusion of movement was first noted in the early 19th century. In
1824 the English physician Peter Mark Roget published an article ‘the
persistence of vision with regard to moving objects’. Many inventors put
his theory to the test with pictures posted on coins that were flipped by
the thumb, and with rotating disks of drawings. A particular favorite was
the zoetrope, slotted revolving drum through which could be seen clowns and
animals that seemed to leap. They were hand drawn on strips of paper fitted
inside the drum. Other similar devices were the hemitrope, the phasmatrope,
the phenakistoscope, and the praxinoscope. It is not possible to give any
one person credit for having invented the motion picture. In the 1880s the
Frenchman Etienne Jules Marey developed the rotating shutter with a slot to
admit light, and George Eastman, of New York, developed flexible film. In
1888 Thomas Edison, of New Jersey, his phonograph for recording and playing
sound on wax cylinders. He tried to combine sound with motion pictures.
Edison’s assistant, William Dickson, worked on the idea, and in 1889, he
both appeared and spoke in a film. Edison did not turn his attention to the
projected motion picture at first. The results were still not good enough,
and Edison did not think that films would not have large appeal. Instead he
produced and patented the kinetoscope, which ran a continuous loop of film
about 15 meters (50 feet) long. Only one person could view it at a time. By
1894, hand-cranked kinetoscope appeared all over the United States and
Europe. Edison demonstrated a projecting kinetoscope. The cinematograph
based on Edison’s kinetoscope was invented by two Frenchmen, Louis and
Auguste Lumiere. This machine consisted of a portable camera and a
projector. In December 1895, The Lumiere brothers organized a program of
short motion pictures at a Parisian cafe.



The earliest movie theatres.


Films were first thought of as experiment or toys. They were shown in
scientific laboratories and in the drawing rooms of private home. When
their commercial potential was realized they began to be screened in public
to a paying audience. The first films to be shown publicly were short,
filmed news items and travelogues. These were screened alongside live
variety acts form theatre shows, called vaudeville in United States
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