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Alaska
Ministry of Education of the Ukraine



Section: Area stadies

Topic: Alaska


Done by Lena Kozachenok
201 gr.



Kyev 1998
FROM THE LAND CALLED BERINGIA
Origins of Alaska’s Native Groups
No one knows exactly when people first found the land that would be
called Alaska.
Some anthropologists believe that people migrated from Asia to North
America as long as 40,000 years ago. Others argue it was as recent as
15,000 years ago.
Whenever, the consensus is that they came from Asia by way of a
northern land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska.
That land bridge, now recalled as Beringia, was the first gateway to
Alaska. But these first visitors were hardly tourists intent on exploring
new worlds. Rather they were simply pursuing their subsistence way of life
as they followed great herds of grazing mammals across the grassy tundra
and gentle steppes of Beringia.
They came sporadically through many millennia.. in waves of different
ethnic backgrounds/generations of people and animals..hunters and hunted.
As the Ice Age drew to an end and the seas claimed the land, these people
moved to higher and drier places--the land that, as the continents drifted
apart, would become Alaska.
Some groups settled in the Arctic. Others traversed the mountain
passes to other parts of Alaska. While still others migrated through
Alaska, continuing on to distant lands--perhaps as far as South America!
Those who made Alaska their permanent home make up the state’s four
major anthropological group: Eskimos, Aleuts, Athabascans, and Northwest
Coast Indians.
While all four groups shared certain basic similarities--all hunted,
fished and gathered food--they developed distinctive cultures and sets of
skills.
The Eskimos:
Flexible Residents of the Arctic
The Eskimos were primarily a coastal people, setting along the shores
of the Arctic and Bering seas.
For millennia they lived a simple, subsistence life--much as they
still do today--by harvesting the fish and mammals of the seas, the fruits
and game of the land. Somehow they learned how to thrive despite the
demanding conditions of the Arcitc.
Their sense of direction was keen, almost uncanny. Traveling in a
straight line, sometimes through snowstorms and whiteouts, they found their
way around the mostly featureless terrain by noting wind direction, the
position of the stars, the shape and size of a snowdrift.
And they were resourceful. In a land where the summer sun stays at eye-
level for weeks on end, never setting below the horizon, the Eskimos
fashioned the first sun-visor--which also doubled as a snowmask to protect
their eyes from the wind-driven snow!
The Athabascans:
Nomads of the Interior
Like the Eskimos, the Athabascans were skillful hunters, but they
depended more on large land mammals for their subsistence--tracking moose
and migrating caribou.
When it came to fishing, the Athabascans were absolutely ingenious,
snaring fish with hooks, lures, traps and nets that are the fascination of
modern day anglers who visit their camps.
Generally nomadic, they lived in small, simply organized bands of a
few families, and whenever possible pitched their camps in the sheltered
white spruce forests of the Interior. Some adventurous tribes, however,
wandered all the way to the Southwest United States to become kin to the
Navajos and Apaches.
Aleuts:
Born of the Sea
For the Aleuts, life centered around the sea as they distributed
themselves among the 70-some islands in the Aleutian chain across the North
Pacfic.
Life here was somewhat more benign that in the Arctic, though wind
storms were sometimes strong enough to blow rocks around!
Since their food supply was rich, varied and readily available, the
Aleuts had time to develop a complex culture
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