Education in England

Education in England




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. 2001 .


1. Pro-primary and Primary Education..3


. 充..6
b. xbridge...7


Pro-primary and Primary Education.

In some areas of England there are nursery schools for children under 5
years of age. Some children between two and five receive education in
nursery classes or in infants classes in primary schools. Many children
attend informal pre-school play-groups organised by parents in private
homes. Nursery schools are staffed with teachers and students in training.
There are all kinds of toys to keep the children busy from 9 o'clock in the
morning till 4 o'clock in the afternoon while their parents are at work.
Here the babies play, lunch and sleep. They can run about and play in
safety with someone keeping an eye on them.
For day nurseries which remain open all the year round the parents pay
according to their income. The local education authority's nurseries are
free. But only about three children in 100 can go to them: . there aren't
enough places, and the waiting lists are rather long.
Most children start school at 5 in a primary school. A primary school
may be divided into two partsinfants and juniors. At infants school
reading, writing and arithmetic are taught for about 20 minutes a day
during the first year, gradually increasing to about 2 hours in their last
year. There is usually no written timetable. Much time is spent in
modelling from clay or drawing, reading or singing.
By the time children are ready for the junior school they will be able
to read and write, do simple addition and subtraction of numbers.
At 7 children go on from the infants school to the junior school. This
marks the transition from play to "real work". The children have set
periods of arithmetic, reading and composition which are all Eleven Plus
subjects. History, Geography, Nature Study, Art and Music, Physical
Education, Swimming are also on the timetable.
Pupils were streamed according to their abilities to learn into A, B,
and D streams. The least gifted are in the D stream. Formally towards the
end of their fourth year the pupils wrote their Eleven Plus Examination.
The hated 11 + examination was a selective procedure on which not only the
pupils' future schooling but their future careers depended. The abolition
of selection at Eleven Plus Examination brought to life comprehensive
schools where pupils can get secondary education.


Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in
Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge to denote an
elitarian education. Both universities are independent. Only very rich and
aristocratic families can afford to send their sons and daughters to these
universities. Mostly they are former public schools leavers.
The tutorial is the basic mode of instruction at Oxford and Cambridge,
with lectures as optional extras.
The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the
students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B


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