Рефераты Canadian English

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Canadian English
English is the second most widely spoken language in the world. It is
the official language of The United Kingdom, Ireland, The United States,
Canada, Jamaica, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand and it is widely
spoken in India. It is the language of international business and science,
of aviation and shipping. As so many people speak English in so many
countries, there are many different "Englishes". The best form of English
is called Standard English and is the language of educated English
speakers. The government, The BBC, The Universities, uses it and it is
often called Queen’s English. American English is the variety of the
English spoken in the United States. It is different from English in
pronunciation, intonation, spelling, vocabulary and sometimes – even
grammar! An Englishman goes to the town center to see a film while an
American goes downtown to see a movie. If an Englishman needs a pen he
would ask you: "Have you got a pen, please?" but the American would say:"
Do you have a pen?" Australian and New Zealand English, also called
Australian English, are very similar. Especially in pronunciation they are
also similar to British English, but there are differences in vocabulary
and slang. Many terms, such as kangaroo, dingo, wombat and boomerang, come
from the Aboriginal language and many others from the Cockney dialect
spoken by the first settlers, The Londoners. Canadian English is different
both from American and from British English.

Herbert Agar wrote in his article in 1931:
“The English should try to cope with their philological ignorance.
They should train themselves to realize that it is neither absurd nor
vulgar that a language, which was once, the same should in course of
centuries develop differently in different parts of the world. Just as
French and Italian may be described as divergent forms of modern Latin, so
it would be helpful to think of the language of Oxford and the language of
Harvard as divergent forms of modern English. It is perhaps a pity, from
the point of view of international good feelings, that the two forms have
not diverged a little further. At any rate, when an Englishman can learn to
think of American as a language, and not merely as a ludicrously
unsuccessful attempt to speak as he himself speaks, when he can learn to
have for American only the normal intolerance of the provincial mind for
all foreign tongues, then there will come a great improvement in Anglo-
American relations. For even though Americans realize absurdity of the
English attitude toward their language, nevertheless they remain deeply
annoyed by it. This is natural, for a man’s language is his very soul, it
is his thoughts and almost all his consciousness. Laugh at a man’s language
and you have laughed at the man himself in the most inclusive sense…” This
statement may refer to any of “Englishes” mentioned above.

Another American linguist – John Algeo states in his essay “A
Meditation on the Varieties of English”, that “all linguistic varieties are
fictions. A language system, such as English, is a great abstraction, a
fiction, analyzable into large areal varieties – American, Australian,
British, Canadian, Northern Irish, Scots, Welsh, and so on. But each of
those is in turn an abstraction, a fiction”. The point, Algeo argues, is
that even though these terms – American, Australian, Canadian English –
describe the reality that is in fact not there, they are nonetheless useful
fictions.
“Useful” is the key term in Algeo’s argument, but unfortunately he
fails to adequately define in what way these fictions are useful. The only
definition of usefulness he offers is this: “without such fictions there
can be no linguistics, nor any science. To describe, to explain, and to
predict requires that we suppose there are stable things behind our
discourse”
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