Рефераты Влияние туризма на экономику и социально-культурную сферу

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Влияние туризма на экономику и социально-культурную сферу
1. Introduction.

Tourism is the world’s largest and fastest growing industry. In recent
years there have been increases in international tourism for the purpose of
experiencing another culture. There is a wide-spread opinion that the
economic impact of tourism is always positive while the social and
environmental impact is always negative. Indeed, increasing incomes to
regions due to tourists are easy to see as well as numerous host-tourist
conflicts and destruction of the environment and local cultures. However,
tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for residents in
communities when sharing and preserving their culture and nature could be
seen as conflicting goals. (Besculides, Lee, McCormick, 2002:303) In this
paper I will consider impacts of tourism with reference to the Lofoten
Islands. This is a popular tourist destination in Northern Norway. The area
is unique because of its nature and variety of sea activities, e.g.
fishing, boat trips, sailing etc. It is also known in Norway as a
traditional fishing community, where the fishing industry dominates the
economy and the social life of the local people. Today those resources
which used to be source of living for the local community have become very
attractive for tourists. It is a challenge to get most profits of the
situation and avoid possible conflicts.

2. Economic impacts of tourism

According to recent statistics, tourism provides 10 percent of the world’s
income and employs almost one tenth of the world’s workforce
(www.investigate.html). By the year 2010 these numbers will double. All
considered, tourism’s actual and potential economic impact is astounding.
Many people emphasise positive aspects of tourism as a source of foreign
exchange, a way to balance foreign trade, an “industry without chimney” –
in short, manna from heaven.(L.van den Berghe, source unknown) But there
are also negative sides of tourism’s economic boom for local communities:
Economic impacts to the local community depend on how much of the incomes
generated by tourists go to the host communities. In most all-inclusive
package tours more than 80 percent of travellers’ fees go to the airlines,
hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and
workers (www.ecotourism.org).
Large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors
and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing
local farmers and workers from reaping the benefit of their presence.
Resorts and hotels often over-consume natural resources like water and
power, forcing utility prices up and causing blackouts and water shortages
for locals.
Many tourists never leave the hotel grounds or cruise ship, reducing the
possibility of tourist income for local businesses. “Rug sack tourists”
have little effect on host communities as they consume very little during
the trip.
Faced with limited economic prospects, locals lose the incentive to
preserve and conserve their natural and cultural resources.
Sometimes the costs connected with tourism overcome the incomes that
tourists generate. For example, in all-inclusive packages, as I have said,
most of the expenditures go to the airlines, hotel chains and
touroperators, while the local communities have to work with pollution and
destruction in their region caused by tourists. As a result, it costs a
lot for the local communities to preserve the nature and the cultural
monuments in the region while a good deal of incomes flow out of the host-
With reference to the Lofoten Islands the question is how the fishing
society can get the most of the tourism industry, and whether the local
people can get positive economic effects out of the developing tourism in
their region.
Here is a figure showing relationship between tourism and local community
based on economic impacts
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