Рефераты What is Anorexiz Nervosa

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What is Anorexiz Nervosa
Savchenko
Natalia



The discussion will be on an eating disorder, Anorexia Nervosa, that is
a huge concern of our society. It is an eating disorder that is caused by
a complex mixture of social, psychological and physical problems and
consists of various conditions that involve an obsession with food, weight
and appearance to the degree where a person’s health, relationships and
usual everyday activities are threatened to fail.
The statistics are dramatic. Anorexia has become more common in
developing countries in the past 20 years. 50% of Anorexics recover fully,
another 20% only recover physically and the reported mortality rate is 20%.
Each year, approximately one out of every 200 females adolescents become
anorexic. About 90-95% of all people who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa are
females. The most vulnerable to this eating disorder are the ambitious,
achieving girls between the ages of 12 and 25. However, in industrialized
countries, the condition is becoming more prevalent in all age groups and
both sexes . The main trait of anorexia is when body weight is more then
15% lower then the expected one. It is caused by fear of gaining weight
that embraces excessive preoccupation with food and abnormal eating habits.

Basically, it is an addiction that results in successive changes in
mind and body. The progression of these changes follows an orderly and
predictable path from health to mental and physical devastation. The
addiction that we are talking about is a result of self-starvation process.
This means that during that process a group of substances called endorphins
is produced by the body that is very addictive. These substances play major
role in causing the behavioral and mental changes characteristic to this
condition and are responsible for perpetuating and maintaining anorectic
behavior throughout all stages of addictive process.
The addiction concept of Anorexia Nervosa is made up of 2 principles: One
states that much of the anorexics actions like behavior and thinking are
governed by the mechanism of reward. That is a person will self-administer
by engaging in such behavior whereas a non-addictive substance will not
cause a person to automatically continue self-administration in order to
get some pleasant experience. The second is that there is a direct
causative relationship between the state of eating and the state of mood
and feelings. Which means that non-eating and weight loss promote a sense
of well-being or improvement of depressed mood via release of endorphins.
Two types of Anorexia Nervosa are recognized: first is a simple
restriction of food. People usually starve themselves despite the hunger
pains that they suffer. The second type includes restriction of food and
either regular purging or binging and purging together. It is done by means
of laxatives, appetite suppressants or even self-induced vomiting.
The distinguishing dietetic trends are consumption of low-fat foods,
vegetarianism and avoidance of all the sweet products. Moreover, dramatic
reduction in caloric intake takes place that is many times accentuated by a
significant increase in activity. Often an aversion to foods is developed.
Such eating behavior is a cause of severe lack of macronutrients such as
fats, proteins and carbohydrates as well as minerals and vitamins that make
it impossible for an organism to maintain itself in good health.
Anorexia Nervosa also falls into a category of mental illnesses
because it has been found that this condition is many times accompanied by
other mental illness. Common for all the anorexics is that food becomes the
main object of their lives and it makes them feel as if it was impossible
to live without it. Food becomes a dominant in all the daily regulations
and judgments. And unlike other eating disorders suffering from anorexia do
not consider their weight loss and restricted eating as problematic and no
matter how much they weight, the feeling of being overly fat will not
abandon them
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