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WHAT WAS TITO'S SEPARATE WAY?
THE UNIVERSITY OF HULL



DEPARTMENT OF POLITICS

The Politics of Eastern Europe



WHAT WAS TITO’S SEPARATE WAY?



By:
Jonas Daniliauskas


Tutor:
Terence P McNeill

16 May 1995


Introduction

The aim of this essay is to show how Josip Broz Tito created and
maintained the socialist system in Yugoslavia, which was some kind of way
between the Soviet socialism and Western capitalism. The main attention
will be focused on the reasons of the Tito’s break with Stalin, on the
origins of the separate way, and the developments of this way.


The Situation in 1945-1948

Early in November 1944, Tito, who was supreme commander of the
National Liberation Army and Secretary-General of the Communist Party of
Yugoslavia (CPY) and Subasic, who was a representative of the Royal
Yugoslav Government concluded a draft political agreement that elections
should be held to a Constituent Assembly which would decide on the future
form of the government in Yugoslavia.[1]A new Yugoslav Provisional
Government was created on 7 March 1945. Tito became the last Royal Yugoslav
Prime Minister and Minister of Defense.[2] The new government was
immediately recognised by the British, American and Soviet governments.
In August 1945 the People’s Front was formed. It was an ‘umbrella
organisation’ in which those non-communist parties that still existed would
collaborate with the CPY.[3] It organised a single list of candidates for
the elections held on 11 November 1945 for a Constituent Assembly. About
90% of the electorate voted for the official candidates.
The first act of the Constituent Assembly was to abolish the monarchy
and declare Yugoslavia a Federal People’s Republic.[4]
Even before that the centre of political power already was the
Politburo of the CPY. From April 1945 currency reform, confiscation of the
property of former collaborators, the nationalisation of most existing
industry, and the strict control of rents were put into force.[5]
The new Constitution of 31 January 1946 was based largely on the 1936
constitution of the SU. It had nationalised all industrial, commercial and
financial enterprises, limited individual landholdings to 60 acres and
organised the surplus agricultural land into collective farms.[6] About 1.6
million hectares of land were expropriated.
So, in the first years of Tito’s government Yugoslavia was a highly
centralised one-party state. The centre of political power was the
Politburo of the CPY. The first Five Year Plan for 1947-1952 was published
and put into effect early in 1947. With the reorganisation of federal,
republican and local government to cope with the first Five Year Plan, the
Yugoslav political-economic system came even closer to its Soviet model and
became a single, giant, countrywide and monopolistic trust.[7]


The Origins of the Separate Way

A few important factors and differences could be named as the origins
of the Tito’s break with Stalin and of the evolution of Tito’s separate
way.
The biggest difference between Yugoslavia and the other East European
countries was that in Yugoslavia - and only in Yugoslavia - had the
Communists established themselves in power without important assistance
from the SU.[8]Secondly, Stalin did not want to help Yugoslavia to build up
a balanced economy. It suited for him better to conclude long-term
agreements under which Yugoslavia bound itself to sell raw materials at low
prices, and ceased to process them.[9] Thirdly, Stalin failed to give
Yugoslavia full support in its demands for the cession of Trieste from
Italy.[10]Finally, Stalin’s aim was to create a monolithic socialist bloc
under firmer Soviet control.[11]Stalin wished to secure in Yugoslavia a
regime as obedient as any other in East Europe
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