Рефераты THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR

Вернуться в Политология

THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR
THE UNIVERSITY OF HULL



Department of Politics

Comparative National Security Policy



THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY
SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR



By:
Jonas Daniliauskas

Tutor:
Eric J. Grove

March 10, 1995



The Introduction.

The aim of this work is to account for the evolution of the American
national security policy since the end of the World War II.
Charles Kegley divided the history of the American foreign policy of
containing the Soviet Union into the five chronologically ordered phases:
1. Belligerence, 1947-1952
2. Tough Talk, Accomodative Action, 1953-1962
3. Competetive Coexistence, 1963-1968
4. Detente, 1969-1978
5. Confrontation, 1979 onwards[1]
The same pattern fits for the US national security policy quite well.
Only some additions must be introduced. The period of confrontation ended
in 1986. The period between 1987 and 1990 could be called ‘Ending the Cold
War’, and the period from 1991 onwards - ‘The Post-Cold War Era’. The
period between 1945 and 1946 could be named ‘Toward Containment’.
So, the goal of the US national security policy for nearly forty
years was the containment of the Soviet Union by all possible means.
But in the 1991 the US founded itself in the confusing situation. The
major threat - the SU - simply dissapeared. The US left the only
superpower. There are no large specific military threats facing the US. The
US national security policy must be changed, and it is changing. The
problem is that there is no clear consensus in the US over the threats to
the security and economic well-being of the US.[2]


Toward Containment, 1945-1946.

The World War II showed that the US must change its role in the world
politics. The World War II reafirmed that the US could not pretend to be
immune from the global turmoil and gave birth to the notion of the US as a
“superpower”.[3] The first problem was how to deal with the Soviets. The
immediate postwar American policy towards the SU was based on the belief
that the SU could be integrated in the postwar security structure.
President Roosevelt developed the ‘Four Policemen’ idea, which was based on
the vision that the US, Great Britain, the SU, and China would impose order
on the rest of the postwar world.[4] But in fact, experience showed that
there was little the US could do to shape Stalin’s decisions. It was
realized that neither trust nor pressure had made any difference.[5] In
less than a year President Truman realized that the Soviets would expand as
far as they could unless effective countervailing power was organized to
stop them.[6] Stalin obviously placed a higher value on expanding the
Soviet sphere of control then on maintaining good relations with the US.[7]
Many American defense officials in 1945 hoped to avoid the escalation
with the SU. But at the same time their aim was to prevent Europe from
falling under Communist regime. The American objective was to avoid Soviet
hegemony over Eurasia.[8] In winter 1945-1946 the SU increased pressures on
Iran and Turkey. The US viewed this as a threat to the global balance of
power. The battleship Missouri was sent to Istanbul.
In October 1945 the first postwar base system was approved by both
the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the civilian secretaries. It included
Iceland as a primary base area. So, when Winston Churchill delivered his
famous “Iron Curtain” speech in March 1946, the US was on the path of the
Cold War allready.
In fact, the origins of the Cold War were in Europe. Martin Walker
wrote: “The Cold War started in Europe because it was there that US and
Soviet troops met in May 1945, over the corpse of Nazi Germany, and
discovered that their concepts of Europe’s postwar future were dangerously
incopatible
Добавить в Одноклассники    

 

Rambler's Top100