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Media in the world
Mass media is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio, motion
pictures, and large-circulation newspapers and magazines. It refers to much
more than the journalistic aspects of the instruments of popular
communication. The mass media often function as the locus of social control
and the source of popular culture. They help create historical events,
teach values, and by virtue of the huge commercial enterprises they
represent, affect the viability of free societies.
There are five major fields of journalism: newspapers, news services,
periodicals, radio and television. Radio and television perform information
only briefly, but quickly. Newspapers include full reports on different
topics. News agencies provide them with the latest information.

News agencies are local, national, international, or technical
organizations that gathers and distributes news, selling theyr services to
newspapers, periodicals, and broadcasters; reports are also available as
part of some on-line computer services. The major news organizations in the
U.S. are: the Associated Press (AP), founded in 1892 as the Associated
Press of Illinois, which adopted its present name in 1900; the United Press
Association, called the United Press (UP), founded in 1892, which became an
affiliate of the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain; and the International News
Service (INS), founded by W.R. Hearst in 1906; in 1958 INS was merged with
UP, forming United Press International (UPI). Two major European news
agencies are the Reuter Telegram Company of London, founded in 1851 and
known simply as Reuters; and Agence France-Presse, founded in 1835 as
Agence Havas of Paris. Some countries have government-owned and -controlled
agencies. News agencies transmit copy through the use of the telegraph,
telephone wires, underwater cables, and communications satellites. Many
offer their clients photographs, news analyses, and special features.

Newspaper is a publication issued periodically, usually daily or
weekly, to present information about current events. The Roman Acta diurna
(c.59 B.C.), posted daily in public places, was the first recorded
newspaper . The invention and spread of printing in the 15th cent. was the
major factor in the early development of the newspaper. The first daily
paper in England was the Daily Courant (1702). English newspapers began to
reach the masses in the 19th cent. Important English newspapers of today
are The Times of London (founded in 1785) and the Manchester Guardian. One
of the oldest continental newspapers, Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, appeared
in Germany in 1609; the Nieuwe Tijdingen was published in Antwerp in 1616;
and the first French newspaper, the Gazette, was founded in 1631. Important
newspapers of the world today include Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
(Germany), Figaro (France), Osservatore romano (Vatican), Asahi Shimbun
(Japan), and the Times of India (Delhi). The first newspaper to appear in
the American colonies was a newssheet, Publick Occurrences, which was
issued in Boston in 1690. During the 19th cent. many famous U.S. newspapers
appeared: the New York Evening Post (1801); the New York Sun, founded
(1833) by B.H. Day; the New York Herald (1835); and the New York Times
(1851. Other important American newspapers are the Washington Post; Los
Angeles Times; Christian Science Monitor (Boston); Atlanta Constitution;
Chicago Tribune; USA Today, a national paper; and Wall Street Journal
(N.Y.C.), which in 1980 became the best-selling daily newspaper in the U.S.
In the 20th cent. great newspaper empires were built in England and in the
U.S. By 1980 the Australian magnate Rupert Murdoch was publishing
newspapers in Australia, Britain, and the U.S. Since the invention of the
telegraph, which facilitated the rapid gathering of news, the great news
agencies have sold their services to many newspapers
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