Рефераты Alexander Solzhenitsyn

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Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Municipal educational establishment “High school with a profound study
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Alexander Solzhenitsyn


Plan. 1
Introduction. 2
Main part. 3
1. Biography. 3
2. Master’s works. 8
3. The Cancer Ward. 9
Conclusion. 11
Literature. 12


"Who else, if not writers,
can censure not only their faulty
rulers but society at large?"
Solzhenitsyn (From Nobel lecture)

"We lived next door but did not understand that she was the upright
person no settlement can do without. Nor can a city. Nor the entire
This excerpt from the famous short story "Matriona's Home" about a
peasant woman who gave shelter to the writer in the 1950s perfectly applies
to the writer himself. A teacher in the broadest sense of the word, a human
rights activist and a righteous man, whose principle has always been to
live without lies.
Solzhenitsyn received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1970 "for the
ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of
Russian literature." Active member of Russian Academy of Sciences (1997).
Alexander Solzhenitsyn is now 84. "A legend of the 20th century,
martyr and hero," thus the outstanding Russian scholar Dmitry Likhachyov
described Solzhenitsyn once. For us Solzhenitsyn is not simply a great
writer but rather the nation's conscience whose word strikes you not only
by its artistic value but by its message of truth. This truth is all the
more impressing since the writer's word and life are never at varience.
They complement each other. Today we came to realize that the writer's most
outstanding "work" is his own life.
"Longevity was given to me. 80 years is a longevity. At this age you
have new opportunities. You can look back at your life and open something
in it that you could not notice and understand while you were on the run.
For a larger part of our lives we act, and action interferes with our
ability to take a quiet look at things. An old age gives some scope to your
soul, a chance to evaluate your deeds."

Main part.

1. Biography.

One of the leading Russian writers of the 20th century, Alexander
Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, was born in Kislovodsk, on the 11th of December
1918 in a family of Cossack intellectuals and brought up primarily by his
mother. His father had studied philological subjects at Moscow University,
but did not complete his studies, as he enlisted as a volunteer when war
broke out in 1914. He became an artillery officer on the German front,
fought throughout the war and died in the summer of 1918, six months before
his son was born. Alexander was brought up by his mother, who worked as a
shorthand typist, in the town of Rostov-on-Don, where he spent the whole of
his childhood and youth, leaving the grammar school there in 1936. Even as
a child, without any prompting from others, he wanted to be a writer and,
indeed, he turned out a good deal of the usual juvenilia. In the 1930s, he
tried to get his writings published but he could not find anyone willing to
accept his manuscripts. He wanted to acquire a literary education, but in
Rostov such an education that would suit his wishes was not to be obtained.
To move to Moscow was not possible, partly because his mother was alone and
in poor health, and partly because of their modest circumstances.
Solzhenitsyn therefore began to study at the Department of Mathematics
at Rostov University, where it proved that he had considerable aptitude for
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